Cable Bridge Station Simulation
How Do Cable-stays Work?
Resources needed - at least 3 strands of rope/string, each about 5’ long (length may be affected by student size) at least 3 strands of rope/string, each about 6’ long (length may be affected by student size)
William H. Natcher Bridge, Rockport, IN Photo credit: © David Sailors/CORBIS
Stand up and hold your arms out horizontally at each side as showing in the picture below. Imagine that your arms are a bridge, and your head is a tower in the middle. In this position, your muscles are holding up your arms. Try making cable-stayeds to support your arms.
Take a piece of rope (about five feet long), and have a partner tie each end of the rope to each of your elbows. Then lay the middle of the rope on top of your head. The rope acts as a cable-stayed and holds your elbows up.
Have your partner tie a second piece of rope (about six feet long) to each wrist. Lay the second rope over your head. You now have two cable-stayeds. Where do you feel a pushing force, or compression? Notice how the cable-stays transfer the load of the bridge (your arms) to the tower (your head).
Rope Cable Stays
More Background Information
This is more for the teachers and facilitators to acquire more background knowledge of each type of bridges in order to facilitate this session.
Cable-stayed bridges may look similar to suspension bridges—both have roadways that hang from cables, and both have towers. But the two bridges support the load of the roadway in very different ways. The difference lies in how the cables connect to the towers. In suspension bridges, the cables ride freely across the towers, transmitting the load to the anchorages at either end. In cable-stayed bridges, the cables are attached to the towers, which alone bear the load.
The Sunshine Skyway Bridge Photo credit: © Tinik/iStockphoto
The cables can be attached to the roadway in either of two main ways. In a radial pattern, cables extend from several points on the road to a single point at the top of the tower. In a parallel pattern, cables are attached at different heights along the tower, running parallel to one another.
Even though cable-stayed bridges look futuristic, the idea for them goes back a long way. The first known sketch of a cable-stayed bridge appears in a book called Machinae Novae published in 1595, but it wasn't until this century that engineers began to use them. In post-World War II Europe, where steel was scarce, the design was perfect for rebuilding bombed-out bridges that still had standing foundations. Cable-stayed bridges have gone up in the United States only recently, but the response has been passionate.
For medium-length spans—those between 500 and 2,800 feet—cable-stayeds are fast becoming the bridge of choice. And even longer cable-stayeds are going up, though suspension bridges are still used for the very longest spans. Compared to suspension bridges, cable-stayeds require less cable, can be constructed out of identical precast concrete sections, and are faster to build. The result is a cost-effective bridge that is undeniably beautiful.
In 1988, the Sunshine Skyway bridge in Tampa, Florida won the prestigious Presidential Design Award from the National Endowment for the Arts. Painted yellow to contrast with its marine surroundings, the Sunshine Skyway is one of the first cable-stayed bridges to attach cables to the center of its roadway as opposed to the outer edges, allowing commuters an unobstructed view of the magnificent bay. Recently, in Boston, Massachusetts, a cable-stayed design was selected for a new bridge across the Charles River—even though cheaper options were proposed. City officials simply liked the way it looked.