Week 2

Session 1

Guiding Question

  • How can we make sand stand tall?

Subquestions

  • What are the four forces of flight?

  • How do wings keep the airplane in the air?

  • Why is the shape of the wing important?

Outcomes

  • Describe the four forces of flight

  • Explain Bernoulli’s Principle and its effects on flight

  • Describe a wing’s role in flight

  • Determine the efficiency of the angle of attack of the wings

CT Components

Data Analysis

  • The effect of four forces on flight

Simulation

  • Bernoulli’s Principle

Modeling

  • Four forces

The Four Forces of Flight

Have students write in their journal what the four forces are in their own words and draw a model representing each force.

Share with the other students.

Credit: Patricia Smeyers

More detailed look into lift

Bernoulli’s Principle, Angle of attack, Coanda effect

Facilitator explains, "Angle of attack is the angle of the wing compared to the airflow. Think of having your hand outside the window of your car when it’s moving. If you arm and hand are level (angle attack of 0) then there is no upward force on your hand. Now put your arm at an angle (maybe 20 degrees up) and what happens. Your arm will want to move up. Your hand and arm are pushing the air down, which is pushing your hand and arm up." Ask the students, "Would this affect drag? Does the wind also push your hand back?" Pauses, Answer: “Yes, the more angle of attack the more the drag."

Coanda Effect: Explain, “The Coanda effect shows that fluids will try to follow the shape of whatever they flow around. This includes water. As the air follows the shape of the top of the wing, the air is being pulled down to the wing, which also pulls the wing up.” Pause, “Bernoulli added to this and says that since air has to travel farther on the top of the wing, that air is less dense there and this also causes an upward lift.”

Activities for Bernoulli’s principle:

End of Session Reflection and Debriefing

5-10 minutes

Teacher briefly explains the computational thinking (CT) skill embedded in the Problem Solving Process Diagram. Using the problem solving process diagram, the teacher will ask students to identify what kind of problem solving skills/process/computational thinking they used in this session and explain how they used it. The following are some sample questions that can guide the debrief.

  • What did I learn today?

  • What problem solving skills/processes or CT components in this diagram did I use today?

  • How did I use the problem solving skills/processes/CT components?